Be judicious in your choice of exemplarsthe literature selected should be pertinent and relevant (APA, 2001). They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent.Select and reference only the more appropriate citations. Committees may want a section outlining your search strategythe procedures you used and sources you investigated (e.g., databases, journals, test banks, experts in the field) to compile your literature review. are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry.
Effective problem statements answer the question Why does this research need to be conducted.
If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and succinctly, and without resorting to hyperspeaking (i.e., focusing on problems of macro or global proportions that certainly will not be informed or alleviated by the study), then the statement of the problem will come off as ambiguous and diffuse.
It is important in a proposal that the problem stand outthat the reader can easily recognize it.
Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion.
The operational null is generally the preferred form of hypothesis-writing.a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs.
Sample Copy Research Proposal Heart Of Darkness Research Paper
In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show.For example, There is no relationship between the number of hours nontraditional-aged college women use the student union and their persistence at the college after their freshman year.Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.When a writer states hypotheses, the reader is entitled to have an exposition of the theory that led to them (and of the assumptions underlying the theory).Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theoretical framework.Remember that the theory/line of inquiry selected will inform the statement of the problem, rationale for the study, questions and hypotheses, selection of instruments, and choice of methods.Ultimately, findings will be discussed in terms of how they relate to the theory/line of inquiry that undergirds the study.The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper.Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research (Wilkinson, 1991, p. If a researcher is working within a particular theoretical framework/line of inquiry, the theory or line of inquiry should be introduced and discussed early, preferably in the introduction or literature review.