The four sampled states contrast in their socioeconomic development.The four states contrast in education and economic development as well as in their varied cultural and political context.The data with regard to private tuition was collected from a random sample of 4,031 students studying in Grade IX–X in 49 schools from Thiruvananthpuram, Pune, Nalgonda and Varanasi districts in four states: Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, and Uttar Pradesh respectively.
The four sampled states contrast in their socioeconomic development.The four states contrast in education and economic development as well as in their varied cultural and political context.Tags: Essay On Harrison Bergeron By Kurt VonnegutAnalytical Vs Argumentative Research PaperProblem Solving Ks3Sample Introduction Of Research PaperModel Essay100 Excuses For Not Doing Your HomeworkReflective Essay IntroductionUc App Essay
Interestingly, Uttar Pradesh shows a lower level of propensity towards private tuition compared to Kerala and Maharashtra, but in Grade X a high majority of students attend private tutoring.
The differential trends in private tuition phenomena in sampled states can be attributed to the social, economic, educational and political characteristics of the states, even if quality of secondary education is a common issue in all the states.
Slow industrialization and high unemployment among secondary graduates in the state has probably also led to high pressure at higher-secondary level.
The social obsession for higher education in Kerala also makes parents put pressure on children to perform better at all levels of education providing private-tuition support.
Out of the total number of students covered in the study (4,031),2 44.7% were seeking private tutoring for one or more subjects at secondary level (Grade IX–X).
The extent of private tuition varies among four sampled states, ranging from 55% to 32.26%.In fact, in terms of its nature, extent and importance it is comparable to the formal system or, it is like a shadow of the formal system (Bray, 1999).In other words, private tutoring acts as surrogate mother as schools became ineffective.This he considers a corruption in the education delivery system.In India, dependency on private tuition to improve performance was found common even at the lower levels of education (Aggarwal, 1998).As the activity of private tutoring finds new means and territories, classes and sites, its nature and type also change in accordance with demand, groups and locations.Private tuition can be divided broadly into three types namely: home tuition arranged by individuals or by tuition bureaus; group tuition by school teachers, or by unemployed, retired and other types of teachers; and tutorial/coaching centers run by individuals or a group of people.The four states together cover around 30% of total schools and 40% of total enrolment at secondary level in India.The next part of the paper briefly presents the nature and forms of private tuition in India and the subsequent section examines trends of private tutoring.Out of four sampled states, Kerala, an educationally progressive state, has the highest percentage of students going for private tuition at secondary level (55%), followed by Maharashtra (49.35%), which is both industrially and educationally developed.In Andhra Pradesh, the percentage of students taking private tuition is the lowest (32.26%), while Uttar Pradesh (46.67%) is just behind Maharashtra.