Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper

Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper-75
(See the glossary for terminology used in this report.) The second report described the successful isolation of h EG cells in the laboratory of John Gearhart and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University.

(See the glossary for terminology used in this report.) The second report described the successful isolation of h EG cells in the laboratory of John Gearhart and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University.That team derived stem cells from primordial gonadal tissue obtained from cadaveric fetal tissue (Shamblott et al., 1998).

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In addition to those research accomplishments, the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997 using a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer or, more simply, nuclear transfer (NT), illustrated another means by which to generate and isolate h ES cells.

h ES cell preparations could potentially be produced by using NT to replace the nucleus of a human oocyte, triggering development, and then isolating h ES cells at the blastocyst stage.

In both examples, the tissue involved naturally renews itself from its pool of stem cells—a property that can be exploited for medical use.

It is possible that similar approaches can be developed for other tissues (such as muscle).

h EG cells, which originate from the primordial reproductive cells of the developing fetus, have properties similar to those of h ES cells, although there has been less research into their potential.

The third report, an article in the November 12, 1998, edition of the , described work funded by Advanced Cell Technology of Worcester, Massachusetts.

It is important to note that stem cells made via NT result from an asexual process that does not involve the generation of a novel combination of genes from two “parents.” In this sense, it may be more acceptable to some than the creation of blastocysts for research purposes by IVF (National Institutes of Health, Human Embryo Research Panel, 1994).

Use of NT for biomedical research, as distinct from its use to create a human being, has been considered by several advisory groups to be ethically acceptable under appropriate conditions involving the proper review and conduct of the research (NBAC, 1997, 1999a; NRC, 2002).

In 1998, scientists reported three separate sets of research findings related to the isolation and potential use of human embryonic stem cells.

Two of the 1998 reports were published by independent teams of scientists that had accomplished the isolation and culture of human embryonic stem cells (hereafter referred to as h ES cells) and human embryonic germ cells (hereafter referred to as h EG cells).


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