Long considered an effective, and even necessary, means of socialising children, physical punishment has been revealed to be a predictor of a wide range of negative developmental outcomes.
The extent of agreement in the research literature on this issue is unusual in the social sciences.
Regarding public spectacles or ceremonies of torture, Foucault asserts that this was intended by the state to make the punishment, even if unjust, seem just; to give the state, which had a grievance, a body to take its anger out on; to reflect the violence of the original crime and warn other citizens to avoid it.
Torture was also used to retrieve a confession that justified the court’s investigation.
Foucault cites Panopticon, a prison model devised by mid-eighteenth century British philosopher Jeremy Bentham, as the fundamental insight into modern disciplinary institutions.
Because of its “unequal gaze,” the prison optimized surveillance of all prisoners.Super Summary, a modern alternative to Spark Notes and Cliffs Notes, offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics.This one-page guide includes a plot summary and brief analysis of in 1975.Foucault wished to document the notable changes in the western penal system that led to the current system, particularly in France.The work is hugely influential in a range of academic studies, and it greatly contributed to Foucault’s thoughts on power, discourse, and agency.Too many revolutions would occur, such as the French Revolution in 1789.The ruling class required a system that was more ordered and generalized, more modern.These constructions can only happen when people are constantly observed and when they internalize ruling class principles in regards to their body, what activities are “natural,” what is expected of them in the future, and what they can do as a group.(Respectively, Foucault calls these “individualities”: cellular, organic, genetic, and combinatory).Knowledge cannot exist without a more powerful force to explain its implications.Foucault unpacks how these larger forces “explain” individuals to themselves.