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The definition of critical thinking is a mental process of reviewing clear, rational thoughts based on evidence to reach an answer or a conclusion.The process of critical thinking is associated with accuracy, logic, depth, fairness, credibility, and intellectual clarity.
The biases often result from our unconscious application of heuristics, cognitive shortcuts that we use to avoid putting a lot of effort into thinking about things.
The availability bias, for example, is the human tendency to think that examples of things that come readily to mind are more representative than is actually the case.
Sternberg does not specify a "how" approach to teaching and learning critical thinking skills.
Instead, he provides general guidelines for developing or selecting a program or curriculum that will foster CTS.
Researchers debate whether critical thinking can be learned or if it's a developmental process regulated by motivations, dispositions, and personality traits.
Describe Critical Thinking
Despite differences of opinion, many researchers agree that critical thinking is "Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological or contextual considerations upon which judgment is based.
If students have not yet reached the formal operations stage, their ability to use critical thinking skills may be limited by an inability to handle abstract ideas.
It is important to remember that Piaget's stages of cognitive development are also linked to intellectual potential and environmental experiences.
The first area to explore is our own cognitive processes to understand the ways in which we tend to err.
Cognitive biases are tendencies in our thought processes that lead us to make irrational decisions.