Citations In Research Papers

An example of an APA in-text citation would look like this: Jones and Jones (2007) discovered the principle of excitation. Alternatively, it may look like this: Researchers have recently discovered the principle of excitation (Jones & Jones, 2007). A citation for an article published in a periodical (newspaper, magazine, or scholarly journal) can be distinguished from a book citation by the presence of 1) the article title, 2) the journal title, 3) the volume number, and 4) inclusive page numbers.

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Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate: , and the month of issue is abbreviated S/O for September/October.

The publisher's conventions of abbreviation are usually stated at the beginning of each index volume, often in a list of "Abbreviations of Periodicals Indexed." Abbreviated titles are rarely used in electronic journal databases.

A book citation can be distinguished from an article citation by the presence of 1) place of publication and 2) publisher.

Also, the publication date for a book is usually given as the year, rather than the month and year, as may be the case for an issue of a periodical.

Citations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct--they may contain erroneous information, making it impossible for the researcher to locate the original source.

The elements included in a citation depend on the format of the material cited (book, article, electronic document, etc.).

Place the in-text citation within the text of your paper after the information that the citation refers to.

In most cases the citation will go at the end of the sentence, but in some cases where you are discussing a concept in more than one sentence, you will put the citation after a set of sentences that are all discussing the same idea or concept.

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