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Although this authority was technically limited to raising money to pay debts and provide for the general welfare and common defense, Brutus argued that these restrictions do not impose any actual limitation on the legislative powers under the Constitution.In reality, only the legislature had the authority to contract debts and determine what is necessary to provide for the general welfare and common defense of the nation.
This too however, could be eradicated by the federal government, who also has the power of direct taxation.
Where the federal government exercises this essentially unlimited authority, it would be impossible for the states to raise money on their own behalf due to the limited monetary resources of its citizens.
Therefore, the legislature’s authority to lay taxes and duties is rendered unlimited.
No state can emit paper money, “lay any duties, or imposts, on imports, or exports” without consent of the Congress and “the net produce is for the benefit of the United States.” Therefore, the only recourse left for the states to support their own governments and discharge their debts is by direct taxation.
After examining various clauses in the Constitution, he determined that this would essentially create a federal government that will “possess absolute and uncontrollable power…” Brutus pointed to the Necessary and Proper Clause (3.8.18) and the Supremacy Clause (6.2.0) as sources of immense power conferred upon the federal government by the Constitution.
According to Brutus, the two clauses, essentially render the various State governments powerless.
Connotation on the other hand refers to words that carry secondary meanings, undertones, and implications.
For example, if you were to ask a woman how she'd like to be described from the following list of words, what do you think her answer would be?
Because your audience has emotions as well as intellect, your argument must seek to engage the audience emotionally.
However, using emotional appeal alone is not as effective as when it is used in conjunction with logical and/or ethical appeals.